Transplantation immunology essay
Some degree of acute rejection will occur in all transplantations, except between identical twins. Clinically apparent acute cellular rejection is defined by an often-sudden deterioration in allograft function; biopsy analysis of the transplanted tissue shows infiltration by host T cells and other mononuclear leukocytes and signs that these infiltrating cells have damaged the graft.
Role of immune system in organ transplantation
Reports of significant numbers of successful solid organ transplants include those of the kidneys, liver, heart and lung. The more alike the HLA types of the donor and recipient are the more likely a transplant will be successful. The immunology of transplant rejection Distinguishing between self and non-self When the immune system encounters a foreign organism, it mounts an attack against it to protect the body from infection. Other sources of hematopoietic stem cells are also being used, and diverse immunosuppressive drug regimens of reduced intensity are being proposed to circumvent the mortality associated with the toxicity of these drugs. The successful outcome of transplant in male recipients of organs is also reported to be better than that of the female transplant patients. Rejection of a transplant occurs in instances where the immune system identifies the transplant as foreign, triggering a response that will ultimately destroy the transplanted organ or tissue. Though researches showed evidences about sex of the donor and the recipient of transplants being a factor in the positive outcome of the transplant, this factor is still not yet considered in the selection process of transplant recipient and donor. The compatibility of MHC and major blood groups of donor and recipient is evaluated in tissue typing laboratories to identify the presence of lymphocytotoxic antibodies that may specifically react with the prospect donor of the transplant. Welcome to Einar M. The morphological and functional characteristics of the organ can be greatly altered without proper preservation. The kidney graft survival when the donor is of the living category and has identical HLA with the recipient is The source type of the transplanted organ another significant factor in the success of these surgical procedures because varied sources have different properties that can contribute to the survival of the transplanted organ in the body of its new host. Immunosuppressive drugs are used to prevent and to treat transplant rejection by dampening the overall immune response. However, blood group compatibility is not always required for transplantations. Acute rejection This occurs within the first 6 months after transplantation.
One of the major developments in the field of medicine is organ transplantation which gives the recipient the capacity to continue living without the problems brought about by the organ with disease or malfunction. Allografts are the most common type of transplant. Though researches showed evidences about sex of the donor and the recipient of transplants being a factor in the positive outcome of the transplant, this factor is still not yet considered in the selection process of transplant recipient and donor.
Transplantation immunology ppt
Proof-of-principle studies in animal models. A definitive diagnosis using this technique can be achieved with the use of histopathological test of renal biopsy. Kidney function can also be assessed with the use of renal scan which operates by injecting a substance that is allowed to flow in the kidney and detection of that substance with a scanner. Kidney that is transplanted from deceased donors is of increased survival in white people when compared to the blacks. Baum, C. Canada, T. Koch, C. Chromosome 6 is an autosome, and therefore all individuals have two HLA haplotypes one for each chromosome , and there are only four possible combinations of haplotypes among the offspring of any two parents.
Morris, P. These aforementioned drugs have a great contribution in the prevention of the rejection of the transplanted organ but they also have side effects. The mounting of immune system response against the transplanted organ is a complex mechanism that involves various immune cells and pathway.
Rejection of a transplant occurs in instances where the immune system identifies the transplant as foreign, triggering a response that will ultimately destroy the transplanted organ or tissue.
The other drugs mentioned have similar functions with cyclosporine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI is a promising diagnostic modality that overcomes the disadvantages of tissue biopsy.
based on 104 review