Are the NGOs helping the situation and for whose benefit? Firstly, political economy expresses with relative validity the truth of this society and economy: it is no good attempting to proceed by denying this truth, one needs rather to show how it is merely relative — to show, for instance, how the capitalist mode of production and market relations etc.
This concept is quite often referred to in the literature. In tribal or subsistence communities, for example, there appears to be an absence of any differentiation between economic and ecological ideas as we would conceive them: ecological systems are preserved and their constituents respected for reasons which do not reflect any distinction between instrumental and intrinsic values.
A development of political ecology is premised on this dual critique. From Political Economy to Political Ecology If it is sought, through a critique of political economy, to develop a theory of political ecology which may offer a more adequate grasp of the human metabolism with nature the first general question to ask is how the object field of political ecology relates to that of political economy.
Firstly, then, it should be noted that there is a strand of ecofeminist theory which advocates the primacy of reproduction. Disregarding or effacing such differences when explaining human practices can lead to naturalistic reductionism;8 and attempting to derive principles for policy directly from ecology is likely to be abstract or arbitrary, ifnot fallacious — for politics has to do with relations between people, social relations, which cannot exhaustively be explained ecologically.
In the course of history, as the loci of economic activities and institutions have expanded far beyond the narrow bounds of the household, it has become possible to think of oikos in broader terms.