Microbial contamination on toothbrush storage

Toothbrush bacteria studies

There has been some type of cleaning instrument to clean and preserve teeth; although, the exact origin of these teeth cleaning devices is unknown. Escherichia coli was found in 3 months used toothbrushes kept in the bathrooms with attached toilet. The early devices used in cleaning the teeth include the twig brush, tooth stick, also known as the toothpick, and plantain stalk with charcoal. Toothbrushes can become contaminated from the oral cavity, environment, hands, aerosol contamination, and storage containers. Results Microbiological analysis using compound microscope revealed the following micro-organisms in 1 month and 3 months used toothbrushes kept in the bathrooms with and without attached toilets. The study determined that toothbrushes, particularly its bristles used by most participants during 1 month and apparently exposed to the bathroom environment, were heavily contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae species. The reason attributed to this would be lack of awareness among the public regarding toothbrush maintenance. Aims: 1 To assess the microbial contamination of the hard deposit on the toothbrush head, between the bristle tufts, after 1 and 3 months of use. In earlier days, chewing sticks like Miswak, Neem and Babul were the sole oral hygiene aids used by different populations. Materials and Methods Materials used in the present study included toothbrushes, different agar media, agar plates, plastic sterile container, scissors toothpick, inoculation loops, glucose broth and compound microscope. Toothbrush bristles, a harbor of microbes and the risk of infection. Toothbrush bristles serve unintentionally a great source of favorable condition for the growth and survival of microorganisms. Sterilized agar plates were selected; agar media to allow growth of micro-organisms were prepared by weighing correct proportion of water and agar powder according to manufacturer's instructions and following aseptic protocol. Micro-organisms were found in isolated form in toothbrushes used for 1 month, whereas in toothbrushes used for 3 months they are found in clumps. With the help of a sterile toothpick, a streak of deposit between the bristle tufts was taken and inoculated into the glucose broth, which supports the growth of micro-organisms and was incubated for 24 hours.

This resulted in the high occurrence of caries and gingivitis in the MB-patients. In the majority of tooth brushes kept in bathroom without attached toilet, micro-organisms like Streptococcus mutans, Candida, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella were seen.

There is a need for standardized nursing guidelines to prevent toothbrush contamination, which may increase the risk of infections from potentially pathogenic microorganisms and is clinically relevant for assessing the risks and benefits of oral care and informing nursing practice.

There has been some type of cleaning instrument to clean and preserve teeth; although, the exact origin of these teeth cleaning devices is unknown. This review article highlights the microbial contamination of toothbrush bristles occurrence, and further provides the conceptualization of infection risks that users of a toothbrush are prone to.

The review resulted in seven experimental and three descriptive studies which identified multiple concepts related to toothbrush contamination to include contamination, methods for decontamination, storage, design, and environmental factors.

bacterial contamination of toothbrushes

Assessment of microbial contamination of toothbrush head: An in vitro study. The first search search 1 identified articles in the selected databases and complete copies of articles that were considered to have met the inclusion criteria were obtained for further review Table 1.

Contamination is the retention and survival of infectious organisms that occur on animate or inanimate objects.

Bacterial growth on toothbrushes

In the majority of tooth brushes kept in bathroom without attached toilet, micro-organisms like Streptococcus mutans, Candida, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella were seen. Standardization was done with respect to materials, instruments, methodology and calibration for the microbial analysis. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Contamination is the retention and survival of infectious organisms that occur on animate or inanimate objects. Materials and Methods: Twenty toothbrushes kept in the bathrooms with an attached toilet and 20 toothbrushes kept in the bathrooms without an attached toilet were collected from the participants, making it a total of Toothbrush bristles serve unintentionally a great source of favorable condition for the growth and survival of microorganisms. Toothbrushes may play a significant role in disease transmission and increase the risk of infection since they can serve as a reservoir for microorganisms in healthy, oral-diseased and medically ill adults [ 1 ]. Toothbrushes can become contaminated from the oral cavity, environment, hands, aerosol contamination, and storage containers. Another study determined that, during orthodontic therapy with multi-bracket MB appliances, toothbrush bristles were contaminated more intensely with S. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

The electronic databases utilized were PubMed Central and Google Scholar, to identify the published literature having the key search terms toothbrush, microbial infections, contamination, and other appropriate phrases relevant to the topic.

Table 1. Conclusion: Hard deposit on the toothbrush head between bristle tufts is a nidus for growth of micro-organisms, which not only affects the oral health but also affects the general health of an individual.

Toothbrushes may play a significant role in disease transmission and increase the risk of infection since they can serve as a reservoir for microorganisms in healthy, oral-diseased and medically ill adults [ 1 ]. Retention and survival of micro-organisms on toothbrush after brushing represents a possible cause of re-contamination of the mouth.

Do bamboo toothbrushes harbor bacteria

Toothbrushes may play a significant role in disease transmission and increase the risk of infection since they can serve as a reservoir for microorganisms in healthy, oral-diseased and medically ill adults [ 1 ]. There is a need for standardized nursing guidelines to prevent toothbrush contamination, which may increase the risk of infections from potentially pathogenic microorganisms and is clinically relevant for assessing the risks and benefits of oral care and informing nursing practice. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Key search terms used in the review were toothbrush, tooth brushing, colonization, bacterial contamination, contamination, oral hygiene, oral health, nursing practice, microbial contamination, and adults. Conducting a literature review of previous studies, we explored the microbial contamination of toothbrush bristles occurrence, and the risks this poses for disease infections in susceptible individuals in this review article. Results Microbiological analysis using compound microscope revealed the following micro-organisms in 1 month and 3 months used toothbrushes kept in the bathrooms with and without attached toilets. Retention and survival of micro-organisms on toothbrush after brushing represents a possible cause of re-contamination of the mouth. This review article highlights the microbial contamination of toothbrush bristles occurrence, and further provides the conceptualization of infection risks that users of a toothbrush are prone to. Contamination is the retention and survival of infectious organisms that occur on animate or inanimate objects. The hard deposit growth was inoculated into the prepared agar plates with different agar media using inoculation loop. The prepared agar media were poured into the agar plates and kept in the refrigerator to allow cooling of the agar media and to prevent contamination. Frazelle and C. Out of the 20 toothbrushes, 10 were of 1 month duration and the other 10 were of 3 months duration in each group; they were collected from volunteer dental students aged years, who were free of any oral and systemic disease. Medical history of the participants was obtained from the participants themselves to rule out systemic diseases.

It is a wooden stick cut to 5 or 6 inches in length with one-end macerated into bristle-like structures to about one-quarter of an inch.

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Toothbrush Contamination: A Review of the Literature