Schoolteachers and religious missionaries arrived in the South, some sponsored by Northern churches. Were the former slaves American citizens now? Neither serfdom nor peasantry would replace slavery. Provided by: Wikipedia. How would citizenship be defined in the postwar nation?
Unlike sharecroppers, who were given all resources by the landowner, tenant farmers rented the land, provided their own tools and mule, and received half the crop.
Railroads helped open the South's economy to national forces. Then it enacted a series of Enforcement Acts authorizing national action to suppress political violence.
Johnson used his influence to block the amendment in the states. As a result, political participation by most blacks and many poor whites began to decrease. However, any resolution of the status of former slaves had to be resolved within the context of American federalism, because until that time citizenship was defined and protected by state law.
African Americans who asserted their rights in dealings with white employers, teachers, ministers, and others seeking to assist the former slaves also became targets. Prior to the Civil War, no Southern state had a system of universal state-supported public education.
Modern day tenancy is much more highly regulated, and these practices are more rare.